These past 2 years have been a whirlwind. With the transition from in-person to virtual and back to in-person school, less opportunity for socialization, along with the uncertainty of what life will look like each day; it’s no surprise that we are seeing an increase in childhood stress and anxiety. So, what strategies can we provide to ease the stress our kids are facing today?
We all know sleep is important for maintaining a healthy, happy lifestyle. Unfortunately, sleep doesn’t always come easy, even to children. Some children, especially those with sensory processing issues and other difficulties, struggle to get to sleep and remain asleep through the night. What’s more, chances are, if your child isn’t sleeping, you aren’t either. The result is a cranky, sleep-deprived child and a cranky, sleep-deprived adult. Here are some strategies for improving your child’s “sleep hygiene,” or habits that promote healthy sleep.
What are weighted objects, and how do they work?
In the context of pediatric therapy, a “weighted object” refers to any object or item that is worn, placed on, or carried by the body to elicit a desired sensory response. These objects work by providing deep pressure, or distributed weight over parts of the body through cuddling, hugging, squeezing, and holding, to regulate the nervous system and calm the body. Additional input is processed by the proprioceptive system, which provides information about the position and movements of our muscles and joints, to increase understanding and awareness of where our body is in space.
What are some potential benefits of using weighted objects?
Potential benefits of using weighted objects include:
1. Better attention and focus: weighted objects are often calming for children that seek opportunities for movement and deep pressure and for those that have a difficult time sitting still and attending to structured activities. As weighted objects provide the input these children are seeking, their bodies become more calm and organized, and they are better able to focus and stay on-task, especially in the classroom environment.
2. Less anxiety and improved sleep: the calming effects of weighted objects on the nervous system help to reduce sympathetic arousal, or the fight-or-flight response, and promote feelings of comfort and relaxation. For these reasons, use of weighted blankets at night has also been found to help individuals fall asleep more easily as well as improve overall quality of sleep throughout the night.
3. Smoother transitions between daily routines and activities: when children experience increased regulation and sensory organization due to the effects of weighted objects, they often feel more “in control” of their bodies and are better equipped to handle transitions and changes in their routines, leading to fewer or less intense tantrums and emotional outbursts.
What are examples of weighted objects and where can I find them?
Common examples of weighted objects include:
• Lap pads
• Stuffed animals
Depending on your child’s needs, weighted objects come in a variety of shapes and sizes and can be worn or held during specific activities (vest; lap pad; stuffed animal) to improve attention, carried between environments (backpack, stuffed animal) to improve smooth transitions, and placed on the body (blanket) during quiet activities, such as reading books, riding in the car, and when going to sleep, to provide comfort, reduce anxiety, and promote a calm, organized state of arousal.
Many weighted objects are available for purchase from online and in-store retailers. Weighted objects may also be created by adding weight to items already found in your home. For example, filling a long tube sock with dry rice or beans and tying off the end securely or adding these materials to one of your child’s favorite stuffed toys may work well for use as a lap pad or weighted stuffed animal. Similarly, adding books or bottles of water to your child’s backpack makes for an easy weighted adjustment during transitions to and from school. Research suggests that each object should be about 10% of the user’s body weight plus one pound to promote optimal effects, so be sure to consult with a trained therapist or doctor before trialing weighted objects with your child at home.
Do weighted objects work for every child?
While research suggests that weighted objects have several positive benefits, they may not be appropriate or suitable for every child. Objects are often most effective when implemented with other sensory strategies and should be used only as directed by your child’s occupational therapist or doctor to best target their individualized needs and ensure safe and appropriate application.
Questions or concerns?
If you have questions or concerns about whether your child may benefit from using a weighted object, please contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org or 773-332-9439.
Caitlin Chociej, MS, OTR/L
Chen, H., Yang, H., Chi, H., Chen, H. (2013). Physiological Effects of Deep Touch Pressure on Anxiety Alleviation: The Weighted Blanket Approach. Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering, 33(5), 463-470. doi:10.5405/jmbe.1043
Vandenberg, N. L. (2001). The Use of a Weighted Vest to Increase On-Task Behavior in Children with Attention Difficulties. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 55(6), 621–628. doi: 10.5014/ajot.55.6.621
Photo Credit: Naomi Shi via Pexels
Does your child love to run, swing, and jump? Engage in messy play with finger paint and shaving cream or seek out hugs and cuddles? Or perhaps they prefer to watch other children navigate the rock wall at the playground or quickly wipe their hands clean when dirty? Our sensory systems are responsible for how we take in sensory stimuli from our environment, process and interpret the information internally, and produce appropriate responses. We rely on proper functioning of eight senses (yes, eight!) to maintain a regulated state, in which we are better able to understand, interact with, and grow within our environments.
What are the eight sensory systems?
- Sight: helps us process what we see
- Hearing: helps us detect and process sounds, beats, and frequencies
- Smell: helps us detect and process scents and odors
- Taste: helps us process and distinguish between different tastes
- Touch: helps us process and understand how things feel on our skin, such as soft or hard, hot or cold
- Vestibular: provides us with a sense of balance, movement, and an awareness of orientation in space
- Proprioception: provides information about position and movements of our muscles and joints, including pushing, pulling, and deep pressure sensations
- Interoception: provides an internal sense of how our organs feel, such as hungry or thirsty, our sense of temperature, our feelings of pain, and when we need to use the bathroom
What happens if our sensory systems do not process stimuli correctly or efficiently?
When our brains are unable to make sense of the information our bodies receive, we often respond to the environment in inappropriate or unexpected ways. While the reactions formed in this disorganized state, often referred to as deregulation, present differently for every child and depend on both the type and number of sensory systems affected, responses often aim to find more of (seek) or stay away from (avoid) input. Examples include but are not limited to:
- Sight: excessively looking at moving, spinning, or shiny objects; appearing bothered by bright lights
- Hearing: appearing to ignore people when spoken to; becoming distracted in noisy settings; covering ears in response to loud noises
- Smell: showing heightened sensitivity or aversion to scents and odors; may impact feeding routines
- Taste/oral: preferring a limited variety of foods; difficulty trying new foods; excessive drooling
- Touch: difficulty tolerating having nails trimmed or wearing certain clothing textures; refusing to touch or play with various textures, such as grass, sand, finger paint, or Play-Doh; wiping hands clean immediately after getting dirty
- Vestibular: appearing to excessively enjoy or look for movement opportunities (running, jumping, rocking, etc.); seeming clumsy; appearing fearful of ordinary movement, such as when both feet are off the ground (e.g. swinging)
- Proprioception: biting or chewing on non-food items; excessive bumping into, pushing, or hitting peers or objects in the environment
- Interoception: not feeling full after eating; missing the urge to use the bathroom at the appropriate time
These sensory responses may lead to overarching difficulties with a child’s ability to attend to academic activities in the classroom, maintain balance and coordination, plan and sequence novel tasks, build social relationships, perform self-care activities, such as dressing and feeding tasks, and participate in family routines and schedules.
Sensory diet: what is it and how can it help?
A sensory diet is a carefully designed series of sensory-based activities in which a child is encouraged to participate to increase regulation and attention throughout the day. Much like we eat healthy foods to give our bodies the nutrients they need, sensory diets are made to meet the specific sensory needs of each child. While sensory diets typically incorporate touch, movement, and proprioceptive input, strategies targeting any sensory system can be included to promote optimal regulation. Sensory diets are often organized into schedules based on a child’s daily routines, activities, and family plans to maximize participation and success and can be easily modified as the child’s needs change over time. See below for an example of a sensory diet:
If implemented correctly, sensory diets provide consistent access to specific amounts of sensory input needed throughout the day and result in more appropriate responses to environmental stimuli over time. When successful, children are better able to participate in meaningful activities and daily routines, develop important foundational skills, and more effectively understand and engage in the world around them.
Questions or concerns?
If you have questions or concerns about whether your child may benefit from a sensory diet, please contact us at email@example.com or 773-332-9439.
Caitlin Chociej, MS, OTR/L
Bodison, S., Watling, R., Kuhaneck, H.M., & Henry, D. (2008). Frequently Asked Questions About Ayres Sensory Integration. American Occupational Therapy Association. Retrieved April 14, 2019 from http://www.aota.org/Consumers/WhatisOT/FactSheets.aspx.
Smith Roley, S., Mailloux, Z., Miller-Kuhaneck, H. & Glennon, T. (2007). Understanding Ayres’ Sensory Integration. OT Practice 12(7).
STAR Institute for Sensory Processing Disorder. (2018). Your 8 Senses. Retrieved April 14, 2019, from https://www.spdstar.org/basic/your-8-senses.
Photo Credit: Sharon McCutcheon via Pexels