What Toys Are Best For My Child?

As a walk down any toy aisle will tell you, there are many types of toys for all ages of children.  Most will indicate on the packaging what age they are geared toward (“for ages 2+”), but how do you know which toys will provide the best developmental opportunities for your child?

Choose toys that are open-ended.

Get the most bang for your buck by choosing toys that can be adapted as your child grows. For example, blocks are great for infants to bang together to practice cause and effect, as well as bringing their hands to the midline, a great exercise for the brain. Toddlers can begin to stack blocks for fine motor development. They can also use blocks to encourage imaginative play by pretending they are cars driving across the floor or as a telephone to call a loved one! Preschool children can use blocks to build more elaborate structures with playmates to encourage social skills and negotiating conflict. Blocks also enhance dramatic play and can be used to create a house for stuffed animals, a storefront for a restaurant, or bridge to connect people, things, and ideas.

Adapt “toys” you already have.

Parents joke that children often prefer the box the toy came in to the actual toy. Go with it! Let your creativity loose and find new purpose for items in your house. What about that mesh loofa? It makes a great sensory experience for infants, and it is easy for them to grasp as their hand-eye coordination is developing. It also makes a safe option for toddlers to throw and kick around the house. What about using it in paint for a unique texture on paper? Or add it your play with a doll or stuffed animal and practice the bath time routine.  The possibilities are endless!

Don’t forget your child’s favorite toy: You!

Playtime is not necessarily about the type of toy, but how it is used in relation with the caregiver. As caregivers, our schedules are packed, but even just a few moments of playing peek-a-boo your infants or singing a rousing rendition of “Wheels on the Bus,” with your toddler, complete with motions, will help your child’s brain develop synapse connections as they learn about the world around them. Point out your eyes, nose, etc.during bath time with your little one or try playing I-Spy in the car on the way to the store with your preschooler. Your child learns best in the context of a loving relationship with you, so go ahead, have a tickle-fest in the middle of that toy aisle and take advantage of the most priceless toy your child could have! You!

Questions or concerns?

If you have questions or concerns about developmentally appropriate toys, please contact us at info@playworkschicago.com or 773-332-9439.

Becky Clark, MS, DT
Developmental Therapist

Reference: Cook, R. E., Sparks, S. N. (2008).  The art and practice of home visiting. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brooks Publishing Co.

Photo by Susan Holt Simpsonon unsplash.com

Early Intervention Initial Evaluation: What to Expect

Making the call to Early Intervention (EI) can be the daunting first step in addressing developmental concerns for your child. What comes next? PlayWorks Therapy’s Director of Developmental Therapy, Kim Shlaes, explains what to expect during an Illinois Early Intervention initial evaluation.

Service Coordinator
After a referral is made for your child, a service coordinator is assigned to your case. The service coordinator:

  • Is the point of contact for you and your family to help guide you through the EI process.
  • Is responsible for conducting an intake meeting to collect all the needed information and paperwork to set up an initial evaluation.
  • Coordinates the evaluation and ongoing services, should your child qualify.
  • Is responsible for writing and updating the Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP) based on recommendations made by providers during their initial evaluation, goals you and your family have for your child, and assessments while in EI.
  • Is responsible for informing a family of their rights while in EI.
  • Helps facilitate the transition from EI as the child ages out of the program at three years old.

Initial Evaluation
Next, your service coordinator organizes a team of at least two credentialed evaluators. The evaluation team is selected based on developmental concerns you have for your child. An evaluation team typically has a combination of the following: developmental therapist, occupational therapist, physical therapist, and/or speech and language pathologist. Other providers, such as social workers, nutritionists, interpreters, and others are added to an evaluation team as needed.

The initial evaluation typically takes about one hour to complete. A parent/guardian is required to attend the evaluation. A typical evaluation follows the following routine:

  • Review reasons for the referral to EI, including parental and pediatrician concerns.
  • Review the child’s birth and medical history. The evaluators will also ask questions about your child’s milestones, their social history (including who your child lives with, who cares for your child during the day, any languages your child is exposed to), and your child’s opportunities to socialize with other children.
  • The evaluators take turns playing with your child.
  • The evaluators ask you several questions about your child’s development (i.e. how your child completes “self-help” skills such as eating and dressing, how they socialize with other children, how they communicate with you, how they process sensory information, etc.).
  • Evaluators then score their assessments and make recommendations for ongoing therapy or additional evaluations. If your child qualifies for services, you and the evaluators write discipline specific goals for your child, based on what your family wants to target while in EI. This part of the evaluation is the “IFSP meeting”.

What comes next?
Should you decide to move forward with Early Intervention services, your service coordinator organizes a team of credentialed therapists to provide service to your child. These therapists contact you directly to schedule your child’s therapy sessions, which are held in a natural environment for your child, most commonly your home or their school/daycare. Services typically begin within a few weeks of the initial evaluation.

Questions or concerns?
If you have questions or concerns about your child’s development or the Early Intervention process, please contact us at info@playworkschicago.com or 773-332-9439.

Kimberly Shlaes, MAT, DT
Director of Developmental Therapy Services

Photo Credit: willingness.com.mt/types-of-play-therapy/

What to Choose? Self-Feeding Tools for Babies and Toddlers

If you’ve ever browsed the grocery store aisles looking for the perfect cup or utensil set for your child, you may have quickly found yourself overwhelmed with all of the options. With the wide variety of choices available nowadays, it’s hard to determine the best item to for your child. There is no “one size fits all” approach to finding a transition cup and/or feeding utensil that is right for your child, and it may take some trial and error to determine the best fit. However, throughout my time as a speech-language pathologist and feeding therapist, I’ve found some tools to be particularly useful as a child develops his or her eating and drinking skills.

I’ve heard sippy cups are bad? What cup should I choose?

I’ve had many parents tell me that they’ve heard that sippy cups are “bad” and that they’d like a better option for their child. While I don’t label all sippy cups as “bad” (and feel that they are a necessary option for some children with specific feeding needs), research has proven that use of sippy cups can lead to tooth decay, oral motor delays, and speech and swallowing delays. For more information, please see a recent blog post by one of PlayWorks Therapy’s speech language pathologists: http://playworkschicago.com/blog/page/3/

Straw cups and free flow cups are a great alternative to sippy cups. Here are some cups that I have found particularly beneficial for children from all feeding backgrounds:

  • Straw cups: There are a wide variety of straw cups on the market that are specific to babies and toddlers. Some of my favorites include the Nuby No-Spill Sports Sipper(a great option for transitioning from bottles to cups!) and Phillips Avent Straw Cup; however, there are several similar options on the market that work just as well. If your child hasn’t quite grasped the concept of straws yet, the Honey Bear Straw Cupis a great introduction to straw drinking.
  • Spoutless sippy cups: Commonly referred to as the 360 Cup, this no-spill cup is a great tool to teach the oral motor and swallowing skills necessary for drinking from an open cup. Munchin Miracle 360 Trainerand Playtex Spoutless 360 Cupare both great options.

I want my child to use utensils, but he can’t quite grasp a spoon or fork yet. What should I do?

Children learn to eat with their hands, and this is a goodthing! It’s important for children to be exposed to the sensory properties of food, and eating with their hands is the best way to do so. However, there comes a time when it’s appropriate for a child to use a utensil to feed himself. When children aren’t able to successfully use a fork or spoon, I like to incorporate some of the following:

  • Dippers: Dippers are similar to a spoon, except they have no spoon bowl. Children use dippers by dipping the utensil in a thick puree and bringing the dipper to their mouth. This teaches the motor skills necessary for using utensils without requiring as much coordination. Some of my favorite dippers include Numnum Pre-Spoon Goo-tensilsand ChooMee Starter Spoons.
  • Curved spoons: Curved spoons are another good option for children who have difficulty handling typical spoons. Curved spoons are made to match a baby’s natural grasp. Many have shorter, thicker handles which make the spoons easier to maneuver. Playtex Curve Infant Spoonsare a great option!
  • Child size spoons and forks: While I don’t have any particular brand of spoons and forks that I prefer, children learning to self-feed will have more control when using small utensils. Additionally, utensils with a wider handle will be easier for children to grip.

What can I do if my child is demonstrating feeding difficulties?

If your child is demonstrating difficulties transitioning away from the bottle and/or tolerating an age-appropriate diet, consider contacting one of our feeding therapists, who can provide your family with helpful tips and tricks to increase your child’s independence as they transition to the world of self-feeding.

Questions or concerns?

If you have questions or concerns about your child’s feeding skills, please contact us at info@playworkschicago.com or 773-332-9439.

Sarah Lydon, MA, CCC-SLP
Speech-Language Pathologist

Photo Credit: Hal Gatewood via unsplash.com

** Disclaimer: We are not affiliated, associated, endorsed by, or in any way officially connected, with any of the products listed in this blog.

Boom, Bang, Chirp: the Sounds of Summer and the Auditory System

Summertime is filled with distinct noises, like that of a fire engine in the Fourth of July parade, fireworks exploding in the sky, or the steady hum of crickets chirping in the yard. For some children, these sounds can be quite stressful. Like the other sensory systems (touch, taste, smell, sight, etc), your child’s sense of hearing, or their auditory system, takes in information, processes it, and produces an external response. Sometimes, this information isn’t processed correctly. In these cases, your child may demonstrate hypersensitivity or hyposensitivity to sound, and those fun summertime activities become a source of anxiety for your little one.

What is hypersensitivity?
If your child seems to overreact to everyday sounds or seems easily distracted by noise that you are able to tune out, she is demonstrating auditory hypersensitivity. Your child may experience an intense fear of mechanical items with “whirring” sounds, such as vacuum cleaners, hand dryers or flushing toilets in public restrooms, blender, hairdryer, and coffee grinder. She may overreact to unexpected sounds by covering her ears or crying. She may seem to be overly tuned in to background noise in the environment, such as the fan spinning or the clock ticking.

What is hyposensitivity?
If your child seems to enjoy loud noises in his environment, demonstrates difficulty figuring out where a sound is coming from (localizing), and/or has difficulty figuring out what a sound is (distinguishing), he is demonstrating auditory hyposensitivity. Your child may constantly create noises with his mouth throughout the day. He may prefer to keep the television very loud, but become upset when others speak loudly. He may have difficulty hearing and responding when his name is called, especially from another room.

What causes these kinds of sensory auditory dysfunction?
The stapedius is a middle ear muscle that contracts in response to loud noise in order to protect the small hair follicles on our inner ears. Scientists say that sensory-based auditory issues may be due to a poorly-functioning stapedius. The middle and inner ear muscle systems are also important in the function of other sensory structures, such as the vestibular system – which determines your child’s equilibrium and balance.

What can I do?
If your child is demonstrating some of the behaviors above, consider contacting one of our occupational therapists, who can provide your family with helpful tips and tricks to minimize distraction, utilize noise-cancelling items, work through difficult school-based tasks, and more! If your child is demonstrating difficulty with language interpretation, difficulty learning to read, and/or a speech delay that are accompanied with the symptoms listed above, he may be experiencing Auditory Processing Disorder (APD). APD is dysfunction in the brain’s ability to translate sounds. An audiologist can help identify the issue and provide suggestions for next steps.

Questions or concerns?
If you have questions or concerns about your child’s responses to noise, please contact us at info@playworkschicago.com or 773-332-9439.

Jen Brown, MS, OTR/L
Director of Occupational Therapy Services

Reference: Dodd, George. (2002). Distinguishing sound from noise- the significance of attention and noise sensitivity. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 112, 2243. 25 October 2002. https://doi.org/10.1121/1.4778910

Challenging Behaviors: Considering the What and Why

Throughout children’s lives, there may be periods of time where their behaviors seem to be challenging and difficult to manage. When looking at these behaviors, it is important to consider what purpose the behavior is serving and why the behavior is happening. While is it typical for young children to have tantrums and use occasional aggression, it becomes challenging when these behaviors are continued repeated patterns that:

  • Interfere with a child’s learning, development, and success
  • Interfere with a child’s ability to engage in positive interactions with peers and adults
  • Is harmful to the child, peers, or adults
  • Is overall challenging to manage

Examples of common challenging behaviors that are reported in young children include aggression (biting, hitting, pushing). In looking at these behaviors, it is important for caregivers to first look at the purposes of these behaviors. Is the child engaging in these behaviors to get a reaction (behavioral response) or are they trying to seek input to their bodies (sensory response)? Below are examples of the behaviors seen through both behavioral and sensory lenses:

After caregivers figure out the purposes of the behaviors, it is important to match the consequences accordingly. For example, if the concerns have a behavior response, the consequence should be behavior based. If the concerns have a sensory response, the consequence should be sensory based. Below are examples of consequences from each perspective.

It is important for the child’s caregivers (e.g. parents, teachers, nanny, etc.) to be on the same page when it comes to giving consequences. When children receive constant responses from all caregivers, the higher the changes are of the challenging behaviors decreasing.

Brittany Hill, MS, MSW, LCSW, DT
Licensed Clinical Social Worker
Developmental Therapist

The Benefits of Parent Involvement in Early Intervention

What is your role as a parent in your child’s therapy sessions?

As a parent of a child who is receiving Early Intervention services, you may wonder what your role is during your child’s therapy sessions. Will the therapist be working one-on-one with your child? Will you be observing the session? Or will you be actively participating?

Parents are key to the success of therapy, no matter the goals being targeted. As a parent your involvement and insight are essential for your child to make progress towards their developmental goals.  For this reason, it is recommended that parents take an active role in therapy sessions. Your child’s therapist will model and teach you strategies and techniques for achieving your child’s specific goals. These strategies can then be carried over into your child’s daily routines and activities. You will see the best outcomes when the strategies provided during therapy sessions are embedded into your child’s everyday routines, as this will provide your child with frequent and natural learning opportunities to practice the skills introduced.

Benefits of parent involvement:

  • Parents are a child’s first teacher and children will learn the most from the people who know them best!
  • Parents interact with their children everyday and offer frequent learning opportunities for their children.
  • Children generalize learned skills when they are embedded into every day routines, such as mealtime, bath time, bedtime, and play

The impact of ongoing parent involvement

As a parent you will be able to provide your child’s therapist with important information that will help with setting specific goals for therapy and how best to implement strategies for reaching those goals based on your family’s daily routines and activities. You will take an active role throughout the therapy process by reporting changes that you see in your child and subsequently working with your child’s therapist to determine what the next steps will be. As a parent you will be able to take the strategies provided during therapy sessions and incorporate them into your child’s every day activities, which will allow frequent learning opportunities for your child. You are your child’s first and best teacher and your involvement makes all the difference!

If you have any questions or concerns about joining your child’s therapy sessions, talk with your ongoing therapist to discuss a plan for getting involved. For further information on parent involvement, please contact us at info@playworkschicago.comor 773-332-9439.

Claire Kakenmaster, MS, CCC-SLP
Speech Language Pathologist

Photo Credit

Why is Play Important?

Play is a natural and important part of development that begins in early childhood. Children learn to connect with and understand their world through their play. Play contributes to cognitive, social-emotional, motor, and language growth in young children. Children learn through toys and people how to explore, discover, and play.

Sensory Exploration (3 to 6 months): A child explores an object texture by using their senses. They will put an object in their hands, mouth, or visually watching the object as a caregiver is displaying it to them. This is when a child is learning how to comprehend new experiences.

Relational Play (9 to 12 months): This is when a child use two different but related objects. For example, a child will bring a brush to a doll’s head.

Functional Play (12 to 15 months): This is when a child plays with an object according to how it works. For example, cups are for drinking or cars are for pushing.

Symbolic Play (15 to 18 months): A child is using an object for something else. For example, a child may use a block as a phone, or a straw as a toothbrush. A child can also use realistic props such as, pretend food to engage in symbolic play with realistic props.

Imaginative Play (24 to 30 months): This is when a child is starting to process their environment through play. For example, a child may act out a visit to the doctor’s office or pretend to have a birthday party.

The different stages of play help support the meeting of developmental milestones. Encouraging play in your child’s day will allow these play stages to naturally form. Playing and interacting with your child from the beginning of birth will help you encourage these developmental milestones to flourish. In each stage of play, children are learning how to interact with others in their environment. They are learning how to manipulate toys, move around the room to access activities they are interested in, how to problem solve, and how to share their ideas through communication. Play skills develop as a child develops. As a child’s understanding of the world and how it works develops so do their interests in toys and in social interactions with their caregivers and peers.

Rachel Weiser, MS, DT
Developmental Therapist

Resources:

http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/119/1/182

http://www.earlychildhoodnews.com/earlychildhood/article_view.aspx?ArticleID=240

https://www.naeyc.org/resources/topics/play

“My child drools A LOT. Is that normal?”

Everyone knows babies and toddlers drool, but is it possible that it’s too much? How much is too much? What does it mean if they drool excessively? These are all common questions for the families of our little ones who noticeably drool regularly.  There are times where drool is typical and times where it could be a potential red flag for something more concerning; discerning between the two is important for understanding your child’s development!

During the “teething years,” often beginning around six months of age, “a lot” of drool is expected as saliva is released from the mouth in an effort to soothe the baby’s or toddler’s gums as the teeth break through and keep the baby’s mouth healthy. There are no teeth to block the saliva stream at this point, which leaks from the mouth in the form of drool. This typically ends when children finish teething around two to three years of age. Drooling is also necessary for feeding and digestion as it begins to break down foods in the oral cavity and helps lubricate foods to prepare them for swallowing.

While drooling is part of a natural process, it becomes a concern after teething ends or if it is observed in excess, at which point it may be indicative of atypical development. It can sometimes indicate or be a symptom of feeding or swallowing disorders, decreased oral motor tone (hypotonia), decreased oral motor control and coordination, neurological impairment/disability (e.g. cerebral palsy, Down syndrome, childhood apraxia of speech, etc.), speech and language delays, fine motor difficulties (if drooling occurs during small tasks that require intense concentration), or even other health concerns (e.g. infections, sore throats, allergies, etc.).

Depending on the underlying cause(s) of your child’s drooling, an interdisciplinary team can assess and often help reduce the drooling of your child. After consulting with a physician to rule out any medical concerns, talking to a dentist may provide more insight to potential structural concerns and subsequent treatment options. For underlying neurological impairments, a team including, but not limited to, a physician, dentist, and speech-language pathologist may be able to provide ongoing treatment plans to address drooling and concurrent concerns. For decreased oral motor strength and control, a speech-language pathologist can often incorporate oral motor exercises into feeding therapy in order to improve muscle strength and movement of the oral structures in and around the mouth.  Oftentimes, drooling seen with speech and language delays may also decrease as the child’s awareness and control of oral motor functions increase. They can often benefit from speech and language therapy along with increased verbal and visual cues from caregivers and a speech-language pathologist.

If you have further concerns, contact your local physician, dentist, or speech-language pathologist to discuss if concerns are warranted, to identify potential underlying medical concerns, and to help develop a treatment plan.

Photo Credit

Therese Schmidt, MS, CCC-SLP
Speech-Language Pathologist

DO NOT TOUCH: Tactile Sensory Exploration

Messy play is an essential part of child development. Our sense of touch, or tactile processing, sends information to our brain about the properties of objects in our environment. Our tactile sense provides vital information skills such as body awareness, academic learning, motor planning, visual discrimination, and social skills. Children can discover and learn more about their world using their hands and feet, which can sometimes lead to getting dirty!

Your child may experience sensory over-responsivity, or observable behavior involving a quick or intense response to a sensory experience that others usually perceive as nonthreatening. This could include becoming upset during activities such as nail clipping, haircuts, bathing, and/or eating. When your child experiences sensory over-responsivity on their feet, you might have noticed them avoiding going barefoot in sand or grass. Helping integrate additional sensory-rich experiences into your child’s life can lead to more engagement and enjoyment with feeding, bathing, and most importantly, play!

Activities to encourage tactile sensory play with hands and feet:

Bubbles: simply having your child popping bubbles is a sensory experience for their hands (and feet!). To incorporate messy play with their feet, you can have your child “wait” until the bubbles hit the ground, and have them pop them by stepping or stomping onto them! This is a great warm-up activity to lead into more sensory-rich play experiences.

Sensory Bins: filling an empty storage bin with objects such as sand or dry beans and placing small toys inside to dig for and interact with provides a fun tactile sensory experience. For an additional sensory experience with the olfactory system, or smell, fill a sensory bin with coffee beans!

Finger Painting: Take away the paintbrushes and bring on the mess! Incorporate various textures into the paint, such as mixing sand into it. Allow your child to create pictures from both their hand and foot prints for an even sensory-filled experience!

Mess-Free Painting: for a tactile experience without the mess, all you will need is a large plastic bag, paint, and masking tape. Place a few drops of paint (multiple colors for a rainbow effect!) inside of the plastic bag and ensure it is sealed. Tape the plastic bag with paint onto a window and allow your child to use their finger to form shapes and pictures on the bag.

If your child dislikes washing their hands and/or dislikes bathing, you can try the following activities:

Wash Station: create a “wash station” in a Tupperware container, small storage bin, or even your sink for a car wash or pet wash with soapy water. This is a great tactile sensory activity for children who don’t enjoy the suds during bath time. Introducing the soapy on a smaller scale (and embedded in play!) will allow them to become more comfortable with the sensory experience.

Shaving Cream: This can be used on a table top or even in the bathtub to contain the mess and with both hands and feet! You can belt out Frozen and build a “snow man” with your child using the shaving cream. Additional Bonus: If you are also working on handwriting or letter formation, you can take off the pressure with pen and paper and practice in the shaving cream!

Water Painting: You can simply give your child a bowl of water and a paintbrush to paint the sidewalk, the fence, and better yet, their body. This activity incorporates the tactile sensory play with water and the feeling of the paintbrush on their skin.

If your child dislikes going to the beach and/or playing in the sandbox you can try the following activities:

Kinetic Sand: Kinetic Sand is available in many themes and variations that may interest your child such as, Frozen, glitter sand, construction zone with trucks, dinosaur fossils, and more! Kinetic Sand has a texture that nearly feels “wet” to the touch; however, it is not and is easily moldable. This is a great activity to incorporate the feet as well, such as making footprints in the sand!

Sugar Castles: using brown sugar is a sweet way to introduce the rough texture of sand! Incorporate measuring cups and popsicle sticks to build sugar castles. This is also a good opportunity to introduce feet into play if your child does not like to walk in the sand at the beach or in a sandbox.

Tips:
1. Start Small: introducing these experiences might be overwhelming, so starting in small amounts can make your child more comfortable to interact with them.
2. Get Out: taking these activities outdoors can alleviate any worries about making a mess inside the home in addition to experience the sensory-rich outdoors!
3. Bring Friends: If your child has a preferred stuffed animal or toy that also has hands and feet, have them tag along! Allowing your child to immerse their preferred toy into sensory play they might initially be hesitant about can be encouraging for them.
4. Join in On the Fun: There is nothing more encouraging or entertaining than your child seeing their caregiver act like a child themselves! Modeling the very play you wish for your child to engage in can be enticing enough for them to participate!

Reagan Lockwood, MOT, OTR/L
Occupational Therapist

Reference: Kranowitz, Carol Stock. (2005). The out-of-sync child: recognizing and coping with sensory processing disorder. New York: A Skylight Press Book/A Perigee Book.

Photo Credit: Sharon McCutcheon via Pexels

Sleep Success: Establishing Effective Bedtime Routines!

Sleep is the best regulation for your child! We need sleep each night to recharge our bodies and minds. Sleep is just as important as a balanced diet and physical activity, it affects our safety, as well as our memories, moods, behavior, and learning abilities. Establishing effective bedtime routines allow your child to develop self-soothing skills which they will benefit throughout their childhood and adult life.

Consistency is key! Children thrive from a structured and predictable routine they can anticipate. Decrease and remove all electronics before dinner to spend quality time with your child during their bedtime routine.

Try these bedtime tips to set your child up for sleep success:

  • Bath/Shower/ ”Tub Time”: After eating dinner, transition your child to a bath, get creative and try new things to make the bath enjoyable for you and your child (i.e. glowsticks, cups, or toys). A bath is a great way to end the day and allow your child relaxing sensory input. After the bath, you can apply your child’s favorite lotions, pajamas, and tooth brushing.
  • Books: Read new and favorite books WITHyour child each night. When reading stories, point to different objects and items on each page. Talk about the book and identify new items you see and explain what it is to your child. Ask your child questions about the book to increase your child’s cognitive skills and language development.
  • Set the Mood:
    • “Lovey”/Self-soother: If your child is still nursing or takes a bottle at night, use this as a great opportunity to bring your child’s “Lovey” with them on your lap, sing lullabies with your child, or talk to them.
    • Atmosphere: You know your child best! Does your child like to be swaddled, in a sleep sack, or do they not like to be covered with heavy blankets? Sleep occurs best in a colder room. Have the room dark with only a dim light on for reading and soft music playing or a natural white noise (e.g. fan). Sing lullabies with your child and tuck them in.

Sweet Dreams!

Kelly Scafidi, MSW, LCSW, DT
Licensed Clinical Social Worker
Developmental Therapist