Speech Sound Development: What Sounds to Expect and When

One of the most exciting stages in child development is when little ones use words to communicate for the first time; however, this excitement is frequently followed by parent concerns regarding their child’s ability to say certain letter sounds and be understood by others. As speech therapists working with young children, we are often approached by parents with questions about their child’s articulation development. Many times, parents are surprised to find that a variety of speech sounds are not usually acquired until a later age. For example, a typically developing four-year-old child may be pronouncing “r” as a “w” (I see the “wabbit”), or “th” as a “d” (give me “dat”). One easy way to determine if your child is developing his or her articulation skills appropriately is by referencing the ages at which most, but not all, children master certain speech sounds.

What is considered “typical” speech sound development?
Similar to other developmental milestones, such as crawling and walking, speech sounds are usually learned and mastered within a specific timeframe. The bullets below may provide a great frame of reference as to where your child should be in terms of speech sound development, as about ~85% of children will develop sounds at the following ages:

By two-to-three years of age:

• “p” as in “pop”
• “b” as in “ball”
• “m” as in “mama”
• “d” as in “daddy”
• “n” as in “no”
• “h” as in “hat”
• “t” as in “take”
• “k” as in “cat”
• “g” as “go”
• “w” as in “we”
• “ng” as in “talking”
• “f” as in “fish”
• “y” as in “yes

By four years of age:

• “l” as in “like”
• “j” as in “jump”
• “ch” as in “chew”
• “s” as in “see”
• “v” as in “van”
• “sh” as in “shoe”
• “z” as in “zebra”

By five years of age:

• “r” as in “rat
• “zh” as in “measure”
• “th” (voiced) as in “that”

By six years of age:

• “th” (voiceless) as in “think”

As mentioned above, it is important to remember that not ALL children will develop speech sounds at these listed ages; however, this information may provide some insight into when the majority of children will develop certain sounds.

When are my concerns justified, and what can I do?
With the information provided above, you may consider informally monitoring whether your child appears to be producing age-appropriate sounds or not. If you continue to have concerns regarding your child’s speech sound development, we recommend that you contact a speech therapist to further discuss your child’s articulation skills.

Questions or concerns?
If you have questions or concerns about your child’s speech sound development, please contact us at info@playworkschicago.com or 773-332-9439

Kelsey Martin, MS, CF-SLP
Speech-Language Pathologist

Reference: McLeod, S. & Crowe, K. (2018). Children’s consonant acquisition in 27 languages: A cross-linguistic review. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology. doi:10.1044/2018_AJSLP-17-0100.

Photo Credit: Thiago Cerqueira via Unsplash

Exploring Self-Regulation

What is self-regulation?

Self-regulation is how a person controls and calms themselves independently. It is important for toddlers to develop self-regulation skills, so they can control their emotions, behaviors, and feelings. Self-regulation helps a child control their impulses and process what they are going through. A child typically develops self-regulation strategies starting at 12 months. It is important for a toddler to have adult guidance in this process. Toddlers use their self-regulation tools to help them develop independence, develop friendships, and process their environment.

Self-Regulation/Self-Calming Strategies

Yoga/ Deep breaths:Through yoga and breathing strategies, toddlers can further develop their body awareness, encourage blood flow, and promote an overall healthy body. Children are able to use the strategies they learn from yoga to manage stress through different body positions and through deep breathing. Slow controlled, deep breaths create blood flow through a child’s body, allowing more oxygen throughout the body. Having ‘go to’ poses (i.e. downward dog, happy baby) can be movement strategies that you can encourage your child to use when they are in need of self-regulation.

Recommended books:“Little Yoga” by, Rebecca Whitford & Martina Selway, “Yoguerilla” action cards

Model:Children learn from their environment and their experiences. Parents can model their emotions and their regulation strategies by narrating how they are regulating their emotions. For example, when a parent sees their child having a difficult time with their emotional regulation, the parent can narrate the experience (i.e. “I’m feeling mad. I want to play at the park longer!”). Normalizing the emotions is an important part of modeling. A parent can then narrate strategies to help their child process self-regulation strategies (i.e. “I am going to take three deep breaths” while breathing). Children can recall this information and imitate the phrases to help process their emotional response.

Visual schedule:Children thrive on routine. It organizes them to understand what is coming next. Using a visual schedule can help a child anticipate a transition or a new activity during their day. A visual schedule will plan out a routine for your child. This schedule will encourage growth in a child’s emotional responses to transitions and routine. This self-regulation strategy will help encourage your child’s flexibility and independence.

Questions or concerns?

If you have questions or concerns about your child’s ability to self-regulate, please contact us at info@playworkschicago.comor at (773) 332-9439.

Rachel Weiser, MS, DT
Developmental Therapist

Reference:The Australian Parenting Website, (Melbourne, Australia). Self-regulation in young children. Retrieved from: https://raisingchildren.net.au/toddlers/behaviour/understanding-behaviour/self-regulation

Photo credit: Photo by, Samantha Sophia on Unsplash

Home Bodies: Gross Motor Activities You Can Do at Home

What are gross motor skills?

Your child’s gross motor skills allow them take their first steps, play their favorite sports, and sit upright in their chair at school. Gross motor skills involve stabilization of our large muscle groups and active movement of our whole body to carry out these meaningful activities. In order to develop age-appropriate gross motor skills your child will utilize the following body mechanisms: muscle strength, muscle tone, activity tolerance, motor planning, postural control, body awareness, balance, coordination, and proprioception (our sense our body position and body movement).  If your child is having difficulty with their gross motor skills, they may appear to be clumsy, have difficulty completing activities of daily living such as dressing, or avoid physical activity.

Laying the Foundation

In order to develop more refined skills, such as fine motor skills, your child will need to build a foundation of age-appropriate gross motor skills. For example, in order to complete fine motor tasks at school, your child must first demonstrate appropriate trunk strength and postural control in order to sit upright in their chair. Once your child develops appropriate trunk strength and postural control, he/she will need to develop gross motor shoulder stability in order to prevent his/her shoulder from moving when engaged in writing activities. It is when these gross motor abilities of trunk strength, postural control, and shoulder stability are present when your child is able to develop more refined skills. Our gross motor skills lay the foundation for the more sophisticated and intricate small muscle movements.

Home Work

In a literature review of fundamental movement skills conducted, researchers found a positive relationship between children’s development of gross motor skills and health benefits such as increased physical activity and decreased sedentary behavior*.

At-home gross motor activities are just a jump, skip, and a hop away:

  • Obstacle Course: indoor obstacle courses are a wonderful way to get your child crawling through tunnels, jumping over “lava,” and running to the finish line. This also provides additional opportunities for supplemental sensory input for increasing overall regulation!
  • Yoga: yoga is excellent for incorporating whole body movements, core strengthening, and increasing our sense of proprioception. In order to further develop our body awareness, have your child imitate yoga poses in front of a mirror in order to increase his/her understanding of how his/her body is positioned in space. Yogarilla cards are a great resource for various yoga poses in a fun format for your child.
  • Dance Party: join in on the fun with your child and throw a dance party! Choose action-based songs, such as “I’m Going on a Bear Hunt.” Incorporate action-based songs that involve activities requiring the use of both the upper and lower extremities to utilize your child’s motor planning and coordination skills.
  • Play Catch: a simple back and forth game of catch with either a ball, balloon, or bean bag can facilitate development of motor planning, body awareness, and bilateral coordination. Additionally, with the balloon allowing more time to move throughout space, encourage your child to keep it off the floor utilizing different body parts, such as their feet or even their elbows.
  • Simon Says: have your child participate in a gross motor version of Simon Says. For example, you can state, “Simon says jump up and down. Simon says touch your toes. Simon says stand on one leg.”
  • Animal Walks: completing animal walks such as bear walks, frog jumps, crab walks, etc. Your child might even want to create their own kind of animal walk!
  • Bubbles: blow bubbles and have your child pop them with a body part that you designate. Try to blow the bubbles on each side of his/her body in order to promote crossing their body.
  • Tummy Time: If your child is not yet walking, encouraging him/her to spend time on his/her stomach will allow him/her to bear weight onto their arms. For example, you can place your infant’s desired toys around them in a circle so he/she has to bear weight onto his/her arms to reach out for them. If your child is walking, increasing the amount of time your child is bearing weight on his/her arms such as in a crawling position or lying on his/her stomach strengthens his/her shoulders, arms, and hands for the development of more precise fine motor skills. This can be done by playing games or completing puzzles in an all-fours position or army crawling during transitions.
  • Clapping Games: using both hands in coordination to complete clapping games such as patty cake are a material-free way to practice gross motor skills such as bilateral coordination and motor planning.
  • Stand Up: create a vertical surface for your child’s arts and crafts activities. When standing and using a work station in front of him/her (such as a piece of paper taped on the wall) instead of below them, your child is actively engaging and strengthening the muscles in his/her shoulders, arms, and wrists to promote gross motor development.

Questions or concerns?

If you have questions or concerns about your child’s gross motor abilities, please contact us at info@playworkschicago.com or 773-332-9439.

Reagan Lockwood, MS, OTR/L
Occupational Therapist

*Reference: Lubans, D.R., Morgan, P.J., Cliff, D.P. et al. Sports Med (2010) 40: 1019. https://doi.org/10.2165/11536850-000000000-00000

Photo Credit: Photo by Julia Raasch on Unsplash

Aspiration: What Is It and What to Look Out For

Have you ever had the feeling that something went down the “wrong pipe?” This is a common sensation that people feel when food or liquid accidently enters their airway instead of traveling to their stomach. Most of us are able to protect our airways by coughing up any material that goes down the wrong way. However, some children are unable to cough up material that enters their airway, putting them at greater risk for material entering their lungs, otherwise known as aspiration. Feeding your child can already be a stressful experience, especially when it comes to their safety. Therefore, it is important to understand the signs, symptoms, and risk factors that are associated with aspiration to identify when it is appropriate to seek medical attention.

What is aspiration?

Aspiration is when food, liquid, saliva, or any other foreign item enters the airway or lungs. Aspiration can occur in infants, children, and adults, and can vary from mild to severe. If persistent and untreated, aspiration can lead to serious health issues, such as pneumonia.

What are the risk factors for aspiration in infants and children?

Aspiration is most commonly caused by a swallowing disorder, otherwise known as dysphagia. Other risk factors for aspiration include, but are not limited to:

  • Abnormal anatomy, such as cleft palate, paralyzed vocal folds, or esophageal atresia
  • Premature birth and related complications
  • Reflux disorders
  • Neurological disorders
  • Other medical diagnoses, such as Down Syndrome

What are the signs and symptoms of aspiration in infants and children?

Aspiration can result in overt signs/symptoms, such as:

  • Coughing or choking during feeds
  • Wheezing and/or breathing problems (stop breathing or fast breathing)
  • Voice sounds wet or gurgly after feeding
  • Signs of distress, including facial grimacing, tearing of the eyes, arching back, or redness in the face
  • Repeated lung or airway infections
  • Slight fever after meals

Aspiration can also occur withoutovert signs of swallowing difficulty, meaning that the child does not cough or show symptoms when material goes into their lungs. This is known as silent aspirationand is best detected by a formal video-swallow study, as it cannot be observed by the naked eye.

What can I do?

If your child is demonstrating ANY signs or symptoms of aspiration, notify your speech-language pathologist or contact your medical provider to discuss the need for a formal swallow evaluation. After a swallowing evaluation, your medical team will be able to determine which consistencies are safest for your child to eat and drink, as well as create a plan of care to improve your child’s swallow function.

Questions or concerns?

If you have questions or concerns about the safety of your child’s swallow, please contact us at info@playworkschicago.com or 773-332-9439.

Jill Teitelbaum, MS, CF-SLP
Speech-Language Pathologist

Reference: Aspiration in Babies and Children. (2018). Retrieved from https://www.cedars-sinai.org/health-library/diseases-and-conditions—pediatrics/a/aspiration-in-babies-and-children.html

Photo Credit: Jens Johnsson via unsplash.com

Feeding Therapy: What Is It and Would My Child Benefit?

To someone who has never experienced repulsion at the sight of a non-preferred food, difficulty tolerating certain textures, or an extremely limited food repertoire, eating might seem like an easy task: you sit down and you eat. What’s so hard about that? For someone who experiences feeding difficulties on a daily basis, however, it’s not so simple.

What is feeding therapy?
Many people are familiar with traditional therapies, including speech therapy, occupational therapy, physical therapy, etc. However, feeding therapy is a lesser known intervention that is becoming more widely available as feeding difficulties are more recognized in our society. There are a variety of different feeding therapy approaches across the nation based on your child’s individual needs. Here at PlayWorks, feeding therapy typically includes the following components:

  • Child driven, not volume driven: The goal of a therapy session is not necessarily for a child to sit and eat a full meal. The goal of a therapy session is for a child to interact with food in a way that is enjoyable and motivating. When the fear of trying a new food is removed, a child has the tools to become a successful feeder.
  • Family focused: Unlike other one-on-one therapies, feeding therapy is most successful when the whole family participates. This improves generalization of learned skills, as well as strengthens the social component of enjoying a meal.
  • Feeding should be FUN: Feeding should not be a traumatic experience! Many sessions will focus on simply interacting with non-preferred foods. When a child learns that new or non-preferred foods don’t have to be scary, he or she is more likely to take the steps to try (and actually enjoy!) new foods.

What will my child work on in feeding therapy?
Before deciding on goals for feeding therapy, a feeding therapist will evaluate your child’s feeding skills to determine the root of his or her feeding difficulties. Simply speaking, feeding difficulties typically fall into the following two categories:

  • Sensory difficulties: Children with sensory concerns related to feeding typically present with either hypersensitivity or hyposensitivity. Children who are hypersensitive can have mild to severe reactions to different types of foods. This is typically related to the item’s texture, color, consistency, etc. In this case, feeding therapy will work to increase a child’s comfort interacting with certain foods. For example, therapy may initially target a child tolerating a non-preferred food on his or her plate before moving to touching, smelling, and eventually eating the target food. If a child is hyposensitive to foods, he or she may prefer very spicy or sour foods and avoid foods with less texture or flavor. Additionally, he or she may overstuff his or her mouth or pocket food in his or her cheeks. In this case, a therapist may use varying techniques to increase oral sensation.
  • Oral Motor difficulties: Children with oral motor difficulties typically have difficulty chewing foods with a “tougher” consistency (e.g., meats, crunchy vegetables) and prefer softer and/or pureed foods. Additionally, a child with oral motor difficulties may have a hard time controlling the food in his or her mouth, leading to “messy” eating and, at times, coughing or choking on foods. A feeding therapist will likely implement oral motor exercises into feeding therapy to strengthen your child’s oral musculature.

There may also be feeding difficulties that are caused by reduced pharyngeal (i.e., the muscles in your throat that control swallowing) strength and coordination. In these types of feeding disorders, a child frequently coughs or chokes when eating or, more commonly, drinking. If your child frequently coughs when drinking liquids, he or she could be at risk for aspiration. It is important to have your child evaluated by a feeding therapist to determine the best utensils and strategies to allow him or her to safely tolerate an age-appropriate diet.

How do I know if my child would benefit from feeding therapy?
If you’re wondering when a child’s “picky” or “messy” eating becomes more than just a quirk and something that requires intervention, you’re not alone. While everyone has a food that he or she dislikes, feeding therapy is warranted when a child omits all or the majority of an entire food group or has a severely limited diet. Simply speaking, if your child’s eating habits impact your everyday life (i.e., making a separate meal for him/her to avoid a meltdown) and, most importantly, his or her nutrition, it may be time to consider a feeding therapy evaluation.

Questions or concerns?
If you have questions or concerns about your child’s feeding skills, please contact us at info@playworkschicago.com or 773-332-9439.

Sarah Lydon, MA, CCC-SLP
Speech-Language Pathologist

Photo Credit: life is fantastic via unsplash.com